Irregular Track between Artery and Vein is also known as arteriovenous fistula, which is an abnormal and low resistance connection between an artery and vein. If the passenger is large enough, it may cause a high fraction of total cardiac output to bypass the capillary bed, creating it so that the tissues to receive little or no oxygen. The heart tries to repay for the lack of oxygen by pumping blood out to the body at a high rate that makes results in high output or congestive heart failure. The location of the arteriovenous fistulae varies and it can be found in the head, neck, tongue, ear, cerebrum, liver, lung and gastrointestinal tract.
Irregular Track between Artery and Vein in Dogs – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment
Symptoms and Types
The symptoms of the arteriovenous fistula vary with the size and location of the irregular passage. Typically, there is a warm and non-painful lesion at the site of fistula buy if it is found on a limb than dog may suffer;
The signs of congestive heart failure associative with the said diseases include;
- Difficulty breathing
- Increased heart rate
- Exercise intolerance
There is a rare case that the dogs born with these diseases. They acquire the fistula due to any traumatic damage to blood vessels or any surgery complications or any problems that arise from drawing blood or injections around the blood vessels.
The pet’s owner has to give the complete history of the dog’s health, including the onset and nature of symptoms to the veterinarian. He will perform the entire physical examination as well as biochemistry profile including blood count, electrolyte panel, urinalysis and electrolyte panel to helps identify complications associated with this disease. Biochemical abnormalities may suggest kidney or liver dysfunction.
Since this disease primarily affects the dog’s blood flow, the thoracic X-ray has been taken to show the heart and signs of over-circulation to the lungs. Moreover, a Doppler ultrasound may also indicate a high-velocity, turbulent flow within the lesion. The veterinarian may perform an echocardiogram on the dog so that he may find the exact location of the arteriovenous fistula.
Dogs have clinical signs that must undergo surgery to divide and remove all the abnormal connections between blood vessels. However, the operation is complicated and labor-intensive and it may require a blood transfusion. There might be a need for proper maintenance and some dogs may require amputation of the affected appendage. The new treatment option called transcatheter embolization that involves using a catheter to block blood vessels.
The veterinarian will want to have a schedule regular follow-up appointments so that he may evaluate the dog. The regular check-ups will enable him to determine that the irregular track has been recurred or not.